How old is the oldest living person in the world?
Leandra Becerra Lumbreras, matriarch to 73 great-grandchildren and 55 great-great grandchildren, attributed her longevity to eating chocolate, sleeping for days at a time, and never getting married. According to her family, she’s kept her mind sharp by sewing and weaving. Lumbreras' family claimed that she lived to the age of 127.
In Japan, the late Misao Okawa, the daughter of a kimono maker, credited her good fortune to eating fish and sleeping eight hours a night. At 116 years old, Okawa was officially recognized as the world’s oldest person by the Guinness Book of World Records because Lumbreras cannot provide a birth certificate. Okawa lived to age 117.
With Alzheimer’s and dementia being a common fear of old age, it’s encouraging to see people stay mentally sharp with their 100th birthday in the rearview mirror. Regardless of who’s really older, and pushing aside their blessed genetics, both women’s advice echoes research on the best practices for boosting brain health. Indeed, both chocolate and fish are important factors.
Move it or lose it
Exercise is another key contributor to brain health. A 2013 study at the University of British Columbia found that aerobic exercise increased the size of the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory. This study built on earlier research that demonstrated strength training also improved memory.
Another 2014 study compared the academic performance of elementary school students who exercised versus those who didn’t. Those randomly assigned to the exercise group recorded the highest improvements on cognitive tests.
A long-term 21-year study of senior citizens published in the New England Journal of Medicine also found that regular freestyle dancing (as opposed to choreographed dance sequences) reduced the risk of dementia by 76 percent and that doing crossword puzzles at least four days a week reduced that same risk by 47 percent.
Feed your brain
Here are some other food and lifestyle choices that may considerably impact brain health:
Cocoa Flavanols – In a Harvard Medical School study, drinking two cups of antioxidant-rich hot cocoa a day resulted in improved blood flow to the brain and better memory recall on standardized tests.
Aged Garlic Extract – A Tufts University School of Medicine study found that aged garlic extract may reduce the risk of oxidant-mediated brain cell damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Medicinal Mushrooms – According to the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, the Hericium erinaceus mushroom, also called the Lion’s Mane mushroom, contains compounds that may stimulate nerve and brain cell growth after an accident or as we age.
Curcumin – This antioxidant, anti-inflammatory compound of the Indian spice turmeric may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids – Fish oils rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to give a significant boost in cognitive function and were beneficial for improving brain structure in older adults in a 2014 study.
Phosphatidylserine (fos-fuh-tie-dul-SER-een) – Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential chemical compound that maintains cellular functions—particularly in the brain. The body can make it and also obtains it from foods. Available as a supplement (typically made from cabbage or soy), PS has been shown to significantly improve memory function. However, improvements may only last a few months.
Throw a party for your brain
There is growing evidence that having a strong social support circle can help keep the mind sharp. In research presented to the 2013 Society for Neuroscience conference, one study asserted that “people who have many friends have certain brain regions that are bigger and better connected than those with fewer friends.”
So ultimately, it’s not just what you eat that matters – but also who you eat it with.
“Aerobic Exercise Increases Hippocampal Volume in Older Women with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment: a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial” by L.F. Ten Brinke et al., Br J Sports Med, 4/7/14
“Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract” by C. Borek, J Nutr, 3/01
“Effects of the FITKids Randomized Controlled Trial on Executive Control and Brain Function” by C.H. Hillman et al., Pediatrics, 10/14
“Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly” by J. Verghese et al., N Engl J Med, 6/19/03
“Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Brain Function and Structure in Older Adults” by A.V. Witte et al., Cereb Cortex, 11/14
“Neuronal Health—Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?” by V. Sabaratnam et al., J Tradit Complement Med, 1-3/13
“Neurovascular Coupling, Cerebral White Matter Integrity, and Response to Cocoa in Older People” by F.A. Sorond et al., Neurology, 8/7/13
“New Links Between Social Status and Brain Activity,” Society for Neuroscience, 11/12/13
“Phosphatidylserine in the Brain: Metabolism and Function” by H.Y. Kim et al., Prog Lipid Res, 10/14
“A Potential Role of the Curry Spice Curcumin in Alzheimer’s Disease” by M. Ringman et al., Curr Alzheimer Res, 4/05
“To Sleep, Perchance to Clean” by L. Xie et al., University of Rochester Medical Center, 10/17/13