The Mediterranean Diet

foods compatible with the Mediterranean diet

US News & World Report recently ranked the Mediterranean diet as the best overall diet seven years in a row. 

Adopting this style of eating is healthy for many reasons. Those who follow the diet's basic principles lose a lot more than weight; they also reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and LDL (bad) cholesterol.

The best part? Dieters are anything but deprived; they can choose from a wide array of delicious, satisfying foods.

Following the Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet centers around fresh plant foods—as much as a pound of day of veggies and fruit.

In addition, followers enjoy:

  • whole grains
  • pulses
    • beans
    • peas
    • chickpeas
    • lentils
  • nuts
  • seeds
  • olive oil
  • fish
  • herbs
  • spices

Poultry and dairy products can be enjoyed in moderation—along with red wine.

More Tips

  • Choose whole grain breads, cereals and pastas.
  • Eat two servings of fish a week.
  • Use spices and herbs to flavor your food instead of salt.
  • Cook with olive oil instead of butter. Don't overdo it, though: each tablespoon contains about 120 calories.

Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet

Research shows that when it comes to heart health, a diet high in vegetable fat may be dramatically preferable to a low-fat diet.

In 2018, a review of 29 studies that looked at almost 13 million people found that those who followed the Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of:

  • cardiovascular disease
  • coronary heart disease
  • heart attack
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • overall cancer occurrences
  • neurodegenerative diseases

For these reasons, the American Health Association (AHA) endorses the Mediterranean diet. Researchers believe the benefits of the diet stem from its emphasis on monounsaturated fats (from avocado, fish, and olive oil) as well as its high fiber, which slows digestion and prevents blood sugar spikes.

  • Weight Loss

    A review of studies shows that overweight people who adopted this style of eating lost between 5 and 18 pounds over a period ranging from one to two year.

    Those who incorporated exercise into their routine are the ones who lost the most weight.

  • Cardiovascular Health

    A new major clinical trial shows that 30 percent of heart attacks, strokes, and deaths from heart disease can be prevented in those at high risk by following a Mediterranean diet, rich in extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, fish, legumes, fruits and veggies, and wine.

    Researchers followed 7,447 people, ages 55 to 80, who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease. People were broken into 3 groups:

    • One group ate a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (at least 4 tablespoons a day).
    • Another group followed the Mediterranean diet supplemented with a nut mix consisting of walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts. Each day, they ate a generous handful (about a quarter cup).
    • The third group ate a low-fat diet.

    Of the 288 people who died during the study, 109 came from the group following the low-fat diet. Those on the Mediterranean diets were 30 percent less likely to die of a heart attack or stroke.

    In fact, the results were so clear that researchers ended the study early for ethical reasons.

    This research is part of a larger project called PREDIMED— a multi-center trial conducted between 2003 and 2011 to study the Mediterranean diet’s effect on cardiovascular disease.

  • Stress and PTSD

    Researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that women who followed the Mediterranean diet were less likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than those who ate more red and processed meats.

    PTSD occurs when a person has difficulty in recovering from having experienced or witnessed traumatic events. Not all people exposed to traumatic events develop PTSD.

    Findings suggest that a healthy gut microbiome supported by the Mediterranean diet may contribute to a more modulated stress response.

    Fiber and omega-3 essential fatty acids, key components of the Mediterranean diet, reduce inflammation (a risk factor for PTSD) and support the gut microbiome.

    The gut microbiome, in turn, influences the responses of the amygdala, the region of the brain that processes fear.

    Certain beneficial gut bacteria are well-supported by foods found in the Mediterranean diet, including:

    • fish and other seafood
    • fiber-rich fruits and vegetables:
      • apples
      • tomatoes
      • zucchini
      • spinach
Click to See Our Sources

“Best Weight-Loss Diets 2023” US News & World Report

“Body composition changes and cardiometabolic benefits of a balanced Italian Mediterranean diet in obese patients with metabolic syndrome” by N. Di Daniele et al., Acta Diabetologica

“Dietary patterns, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome” by N. Ahluwalia et al., Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

“Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes . . .” by M. Dinu et al., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1/18

“Mediterranean Diet Helps Cut Risk of Heart Attack, Stroke . . .”

“Mediterranean Diet Shown to Ward Off Heart Attack and Stroke” by Gina Kolata, New York Times

“Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet” by R. Estruch et al., New England Journal of Medicine

Association of probable post-traumatic stress disorder with dietary pattern and gut microbiome in a cohort of women” by S. Ke et al., Nature Mental Health, 10/23

“Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, an emerging probiotics in the gut . . .” by K. Zhou, Journal of Functional Foods, 6/17